Saturday, April 28, 2012

Haplogroup J2 (Y-DNA)





Haplogroup J2 (Y-DNA) - Eupedia


Origins

Haplogroup J2 is thought to have appeared somewhere in the Middle East towards the end of the last glaciation, between 15,000 and 22,000 years ago. Its present geographic distribution argue in favour of a Neolithic expansion from the Fertile Crescent. This expansion probably correlated with the diffusion of domesticated of cattle and goats (starting c. 8000-9000 BCE) from the Zagros mountains and northern Mesopotamia, rather than with the development of agriculture in the Levant (which seems to have been linked to haplogroup G and perhaps also E1b1b). A second expansion of J2 could have occured with the advent of metallurgy (also from Anatolia and Mesopotamia) and the rise of some of the oldest civilisations.

Quite a few ancient Mediterranean and Middle Eastern civilisations flourished in territories where J2 lineages were preponderant. This is the case of the Hattians, the Hurrians, the Etruscans, the Minoans, the Greeks, the Phoenicians (and their Carthaginian offshoot), the Israelites, and to a lower extent also the Romans, the Assyrians and the Persians. All the great seafaring civilisations from the middle Bronze Age to the Iron Age were dominated by J2 men.

There is a distinct association of ancient J2 civilisations with bull worship. The oldest evidence of a cult of the bull can be traced back to Neolithic central Anatolia, notably at the sites of Çatalhöyük and Alaca Höyük. Bull depictions are omnipresent in Minoan frescos and ceramics in Crete. Bull-masked terracotta figurines and bull-horned stone altars have been found in Cyprus (dating back as far as the Neolithic, the first presumed expansion of J2 from West Asia). The Hattians, Sumerians, Babylonians, Canaaites, and Carthaginians all had bull deities (in contrast with Indo-European or East Asian religions). The sacred bull of Hinduism, Nandi, present in all temples dedicated to Shiva or Parvati, does not have an Indo-European origin, but can be traced back to Indus Valley civilisation. Minoan Crete, Hittite Anatolia, the Levant, Bactria and the Indus Valley also shared a tradition of bull leaping, the ritual of dodging the charge of a bull. It survives today in the traditional bullfighting of Andalusia in Spain and Provence in France, two regions with a high percentage of J2 lineages.

Geographic distribution

Distribution of haplogroup J2 in Europe, the Middle East & North Africa
Distribution map of haplogroup J2

The world's highest frequency of J2 is found among the Ingush (88% of the male lineages) and Chechen (56%) people in the Northeast Caucasus. Both belong to the Nakh ethnic group, who have inhabited that territory since at least 3000 BCE. Their language is distantly related to Dagestanian languages, but not to any other linguistic group. However, Dagestani peoples (Dargins, Lezgins, Avars) belong predominantly to haplogroup J1 (84% among the Dargins) and almost completely lack J2 lineages. Other high incidence of haplogroup J2 are found in many other Caucasian populations, including the Azeri (30%), the Georgians (27%), the Kumyks (25%), and the Armenians (22%). Nevertheless, it is very unlikely that haplogroups J2 originated in the Caucasus because of the low genetic diversity in the region. Most Caucasian people belong to the same J2a4b (M67) subclade. The high local frequencies observed would rather be the result of founder effects, for instance the spread of chieftains and kings' lineages through a long tradition of polygamy, a practice that the Russians have tried to supress since their conquest of the Caucasus in the 19th century.

Outside the Caucasus, the highest frequencies of J2 are observed in Cyprus (37%), Crete (34%), northern Iraq (28%), Sicily (26.5%), Lebanon (26%), Turkey (24%, with peaks of 30% in the Marmara region and in central Anatolia), South Italy (23.5%), Bulgaria (20%), Albania (19.5%), and continental Greece (19% excluding northern Greece), as well as among Jewish people (19 to 25%).

One fourth of the Vlach people (isolated communities of Romance language speakers in the Balkans) belong to J2, which, combined to the fact that they speak a language descended from Latin, suggests that they could have a greater part of Roman (Italian) ancestry than other ethnic groups in the Balkans.

History & Subclades


Two main subclades divide haplogroup J2: J2a (M410) and J2b (M12, M102, M221, M314).

Middle-Eastern and European J2a

J2a's strong presence in Italy is owed to the migration of the Etruscans from the Near East to central and northern Italy, and to the Greek colonisation of southern Italy.

The Phoenicians, Jews, Greeks and Romans all contributed to the presence of J2a in Iberia. The particularly strong frequency of J2a and other Near Eastern haplogroups (J1, E1b1b, T) in the south of the Iberian peninsula, suggest that the Phoenicians and the Carthaginians played a more decisive role than other peoples. This makes sense considering that they were the first to arrive, founded the greatest number of cities (including Gadir/Cadiz, Iberia's oldest city), and their settlements match almost exactly the higher frequency zone of southern Analusia.

The Romans surely helped spread haplogroup J2 within their borders, judging from the distribution of J2 within Europe (frequency over 5%), which bears an uncanny resemblance to the borders of the Roman Empire.
The world's maximum concentrations of J2a is in Crete (32% of the population). The subclade J2a4d (M319) appears to be native to Crete.

Indian J2a

Within India, J2a is more common among the upper castes and decreases in frequency with the caste level. This can be explained by the assimilation of local J2a (and R2) people from Central Asia by the R1a Indo-European warriors who descended from modern Russia (Sintashta culture) and established themselves for a few centuries in southern Central Asia, immediately north of the Hindu Kush (including the Oxus civilization) before moving on to conquer the Indian subcontinent. J2a would have reached southern Central Asia with the expansion of Middle Eastern people during the Neolithic and mixed with the local hunter-gatherers belonging chiefly to R2 (and possibly some pre-Indo-European R1a).

J2b

J2b has a quite different distribution from J2a. J2b seems to have a stronger association with the Chalcolithic cultures of Southeast Europe, and is particularly common in the Balkans, Central Europe and Italy, which is roughly the extent of the European Copper Age culture. Its maximum frequency is achieved around Albania, Kosovo, Montenegro and Northwest Greece. J2b is also found in the Pontic Steppe, the North Caucasus, Central Asia and in South Asia, particularly in India. Its very low frequency in the Middle East though suggests that, unlike for J2a, it was not spread a progresive and continuous diffusion of the Neolithic lifestyle. For this reason, and because it is generally found among the upper castes of India, it is thought that some J2b lineages might have been part of the Indo-Aryan invasions of South Asia (3,500 years ago) alongside R1a1a. It is conceivable that a minority of J2b, G2a3b1 and R1b1b from the Caucasus region migrated to the Volga-Ural region in the early Bronze Age, spreading with them the Proto-Indo-European language and bronze technology to the Caspian steppe before the expansion of this new culture to Central and South Asia (see R1a history).

17 comments:

  1. i think u people are clueless did you guys forget where the assyrians ruled? also the ancient arabs of Ad and thamud? j2 did not originate in the balkans ? too funny problem solved the hittites where indo aryan they mixed with an arabian known as the Imliq who mixed with a canaanite people like aboriginal indians the 1st people to go into greece were the adites(idumeans) they where not a white people! imliq were known as amorites first came the royal authority of Ad then Thamud then Imliq the imliq are from ad because they mixed !!!

    http://www.forumbiodiversity.com/images/upload/maps/neo-assyrian_empire.jpg

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Interesting comment and links.

      The division into J and J2 and J2a4h2 is much older then history within the last few thousand years. So folks sharing this Y group are more diverse.

      Delete
  2. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Syro%E2%80%93Hittite_states


    so the j2b did originate from middle east
    also the berbers of north africa are from lydians who are the hittites and hittites are from adites
    indo aryan mixed with arabian the kurdish and greeks are same kurdish are from edomites idumeans and kurdish are from hittite royalty and also the indian people! did you know the thamud built the allora and ajanta caves in maharastra central west coast of india? did you guys ever consider the arabs who traded with india for thousands of years? adites were also

    The people of 'Ad were tall in stature and were skillful masons. God had given them abundance of wealth, cattle, children and gardens. They had attained a considerable degree of civilization. Among them flourished the famous king Shaddad. He built a magnificent palace near 'Aden. It was known as the Garden of Iram. He was a mighty king and his conquests extended to Syria, Iraq and the frontier of Sub- continent of Indo-Pakistan. These people were proud of their achievements and considered themselves to be invincible. They were indulged in sins and committed acts of injustice and violence. Instead of expressing a deep sense of gratitude to the Almighty God for the favors He had bestowed upon them, they became transgressors and showed disobedience to Him.

    http://www.islamicbulletin.org/newsletters/issue_7/hud.aspx

    the problem is the western scholars have screwed up history so much a person doesnt know if they are coming or going

    ReplyDelete
  3. Ibn Khaldun



    Historian and scholar, Ibn Khaldun also mentions the Thamud several times in his great universal history al-Kitābu l-ʻibār ("Book of Evidence"), but only in passing, seldom giving much information.



    Some examples from the Muqaddimah ("Introduction"):





    This can be illustrated by what happened among the nations. When the royal authority of 'Ad was wiped out, their brethren, the Thamud, took over. They were succeeded, in turn, by their brethren, the Amalekites. The Amalekites were succeeded by their brethren, the Himyar. The Himyar were succeeded by their brethren, the Tubba's, who belonged to the Himyar. They, likewise, were succeeded, by the Adhwa'. Then, the Mudar came to power.
    —Ibn Khaldun, Muqaddimah Chapter II Bedouin civilization, savage nations and tribes and their conditions of life, including several basic and explanatory statements, 21 As long as a nation retains its group feeling, royal authority that disappears in one branch will, of necessity, pass to some other branch of the same nation ( note amalekites are the Imliq) "

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  4. Haplogroup J2a-M410 in India was found to be largely confined to the castes[20] with no occurrence in the tribals, but a new study has found it at higher percentages (10%) among the Tharu indigenous people of Terai, Nepal.[31] In India, the J2 haplogroup is almost absent from tribals. Haplogroup J2b is associated with the Neolithic Greeks that spread agriculture. It has been found in the Dravidian middle classes in high frequencies also in the Northwest of India.The frequency of J2 is higher in South Indian castes (19%) than in North Indian castes (11%) or Pakistan (12%).[20] Haplogroup J was found to be even more common in India's Shia Muslim community, of which 28.7% belong to haplogroup J, with 13.7% in J2a-M410, 10.6% in J1 and 4.4% in J2b.[32] The high variance of J2b2 in South Asia indicates a probable pre-Neolithic migration.(wikipedia)

    ReplyDelete
  5. Interesting comments and links.

    The Divisions of J and J2 and J2a4h2 are much older then any history within the last
    10,000 years. So we really don't know much about them except that they would have been hunter gatherers, probably in the middle east 10,000 years ago.

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  6. what im confused with is the j2, the thing is these people with so much semitic dna dont have much semitic features why is this yet their j is so high doenst make sense they out of everyone would be the closest in features and they are not? The highest reported frequency of J2 ever was 87.4%, among Ingush in Malgobek.[3] J2- Associated with Mediterranean, South Caucasian and Fertile Crescent populations, with its peaks at 87.4% in Ingushetia and 72% in Georgia's Kazbegi region (near Mount Kazbek). In the North Caucasus, the largest frequencies are those of Nakh peoples (Chechens (56.7%) and Ingush (88.8%).[26] Other notable values were found among North Caucasian Turkic peoples (Kumyks (25%)[27] and Balkars(24%)[28]). It is notable that according to both Nasidze's study in 2004 and then a later study on Dagestani peoples by Yunusbaev in 2006, J2 suddenly collapses as one enters the territory of non-Nakh Northeast Caucasian peoples, dropping suddenly to very low values among Dagestani peoples.[25][26][29][30] The overwhelming bulk of Chechen J2 is of the subclade J2a4b*(J2-M67), of which the highest frequencies by far are found among Nakh peoples- Chechens were 55.2% according to the Balanovsky study, while Ingush were 87.4%. wikipedia

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  7. The Y Chromosome that makes us male is only a tiny bit of our genetic heritage. It does allow us to follow our paternal line all the way back.

    My great great * 300 grandfather left the middle east and ended up in Switzerland. His descendants would have married with Swiss women, and the resulting descendants would like Swiss while still retaining his Y Chromosome.

    The same is true for an individual who moved to Arabia, or India, or Africa, or any where else.

    So it is night surprising that we don't look alike.

    What part of the world do you live in?

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  8. canada but we are muslim indians with iraqi heritage many people overlook the iraqi kurds they are not pure aryan this is a lie as they are a total of 40% j dna 28.4% j2 and 11.6% j1 this is truthful also i have seen things spiritually and many of the things i have seen is correct oh im not refering to swiss but 87.4%, among Ingush in Malgobek.[3] J2- Associated with Mediterranean, South Caucasian and Fertile Crescent populations, with its peaks at 87.4% in Ingushetia and 72% in Georgia's Kazbegi region (near Mount Kazbek). In the North Caucasus, the largest frequencies are those of Nakh peoples (Chechens (56.7%) and Ingush (88.8%).[26] i just dont believe it so much j2 and j1 and of all people they should be the closest in features i think there are some inaccurate things on the internet or like a propaganda
    http://dastan.se/wp-content/uploads/2012/09/Karwan-Osman.png this is kurdish
    http://i4.ytimg.com/vi/GOqEd8nV7IY/hqdefault.jpg kurdish
    http://i.ytimg.com/vi/-Xb08wwd7gk/0.jpg kurdish
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4k5oFfzxkW4&feature=relmfu
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=eHhLsoY2jXU
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=MGLECwDFxIE go to 16:29
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EaP_W4vEdAg&playnext=1&list=PLXlBt7xc1IMWZuIGH5uRm-k2rxVwkUvFL&feature=results_main
    http://i4.ytimg.com/vi/7jrTgkU49jQ/hqdefault.jpg kurdish
    http://i.ytimg.com/vi/suWHDAJhV9Y/0.jpg kurdish

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. You might enjoy publishing your own blog with your thoughts and ideas. Pretty easy.
      Just go to blogger.com, sign up, and start blogging.

      Are you J2a4h2 like me? If so we most likely share a common paternal ancestor at 3,000 years ago or less.

      So hello, cousin.

      Delete
    2. i know what i am but i wont say lets just say j2B is younger than j2a as far as i read and it not originate in balkans or europe it is from the middle east Haplogroup J2a-M410 in India was found to be largely confined to the castes[20] with no occurrence in the tribals, but a new study has found it at higher percentages (10%) among the Tharu indigenous people of Terai, Nepal.[31] In India, the J2 haplogroup is almost absent from tribals. Haplogroup J2b is associated with the Neolithic Greeks that spread agriculture. It has been found in the Dravidian middle classes in high frequencies also in the Northwest of India.The frequency of J2 is higher in South Indian castes (19%) than in North Indian castes (11%) or Pakistan (12%).[20] Haplogroup J was found to be even more common in India's Shia Muslim community, of which 28.7% belong to haplogroup J, with 13.7% in J2a-M410, 10.6% in J1 and 4.4% in J2b.[32] The high variance of J2b2 in South Asia indicates a probable pre-Neolithic migration.(wikipedia)hittites were in greece(indo aryans) it propbably has nothing to do with it being greek! hittite mixed with adite black hair and very middle eastern looking

      Delete
    3. Actually iraqi kurds are 22.1% j1

      Delete
  9. J1c3 (P58) is found in nearly half of the men who report themselves members of the hereditary Jewish priesthood (Cohanim). Other haplogroups found in the Cohanim include J2a (M410), J2b (M12), J2a3h2a1c (M318), R1b1a2 (M269) and E1b1b1b2a (M123), all found in the Near East.



    M. F. Hammer, Extended Y chromosome haplotypes resolve multiple and unique lineages of the Jewish priesthood, Human Genetics, vol. 126 (2009), pp. 707–717.

    ReplyDelete
  10. Haplogroup J2a-M410 in India was found to be largely confined to the castes[20] with no occurrence in the tribals, but a new study has found it at higher percentages (10%) among the Tharu indigenous people of Terai, Nepal.[31] In India, the J2 haplogroup is almost absent from tribals. Haplogroup J2b is associated with the Neolithic Greeks that spread agriculture. It has been found in the Dravidian middle classes in high frequencies also in the Northwest of India.The frequency of J2 is higher in South Indian castes (19%) than in North Indian castes (11%) or Pakistan (12%).[20] Haplogroup J was found to be even more common in India's Shia Muslim community, of which 28.7% belong to haplogroup J, with 13.7% in J2a-M410, 10.6% in J1 and 4.4% in J2b.[32] The high variance of J2b2 in South Asia indicates a probable pre-Neolithic migration.(wikipedia)

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    J2

    Main article: Haplogroup J2 (Y-DNA)

    Haplogroup J2 It is composed of several sub-Haplogroups representing several different countries like Turkey, Iraq, Kurdistan, Lebanon, Syria, Armenia, Georgia, Aegean, Balkan, Italy. One sub Haplogroup M172* is mainly found in the Northern Fertile Crescent, the Mediterranean, Iran, Central Asia, and Southern Europe. Is is though to have originated in Anatolia (Turkey and Kurdstan) ie North Mesopotamia, and spread to Europe and to other Middle countries like Lebanon Palestine Iraq, Syria. J2 subclades is found also in Armenia, Azerbaijan), Iran, Central Asia, and South Asia: for example, Muslim Kurds (28.4%), Central Turks (27.9%), Georgians (26.7%), Iraqis (25.2%), Lebanese (25%), Ashkenazi Jews (23.2%), Sephardi Jews (28.6%), Iranians (23.3%), Tajiks (18.4%), and Pakistanis (14.7%). J2 is not regularly found in Semitic-speaking populations of Africa, such as the Amhara and Tigrinya in Ethiopia (Semino et al. 2004). However, J2 has been found to encompass several subhaplogroups (22 subhaplogroups, including 5 that have high frequencies) that originated or expanded in different regions: Italy, the Balkans, the Aegean, Anatolia (Turkey and Kurds), the Caucasus (Georgia), and Somalia (see ref: Semino et al. 2004). Haplogroup J2 was used to be considered a genetic marker of Anatolian Neolithic agriculturalists. It is also very frequent in the Balkans (Greeks 20.6%, Albanians 19.6%) and in southern Italy (16.7-29.1%). Its frequency rapidly drops in the Carpathian basin (Croatians 6.2%, Hungarians 2.0%, Ukrainians 7.3%) and in Southeastern Iranian-speaking areas (Pashtuns 5.2%, Pamiris 6.1%). A significant presence of J2 (J2b2+J2a) was detected in western and south-western India (the highest being 21% among Dravidian middle castes, followed by upper castes, 18.6%, and lower castes 14%; Sengupta et al. 2006).http://familypedia.wikia.com/wiki/Haplogroup_J_%28Y-DNA%29

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  11. Origins

    Haplogroup J2 is widely believed to be associated with the spread of agriculture from Mesopotamia.[1][9]

    "The main spread of J2 into the Mediterranean area is thought to have coincided with the expansion of agricultural people's during the Neolithic period."[2] The age of J2 has been estimated as 18,500 +/- 3,500 years ago.[1] Its distribution, centered in Western Asia and Southeastern Europe, its association with the presence of Neolithic archaeological artifacts, such as figurines and painted pottery,[21] and its association with annual precipitation have been interpreted as evidence that J2, and in particular its J2a-M410 subclade belonged to the agricultural innovators who followed the rainfall.[22] However, Di Giacomo stressed the role of post-Neolithic migratory phenomenon, specifically that of the Ancient Greeks, as also being important in the dispersal of Hg J2.[7] Haplogroup J2b on the other hand is associated with the Neolithic Greeks that spread agriculture. It has been found in the Dravidian middle classes in high frequencies also in the Northwest of India.http://www.enotes.com/topic/Haplogroup_J2_%28Y-DNA%29

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  12. the ancient arabs thamud were in maharastra india central west coast they buit the allora and ajanta caves the idumeans adites were up to india pakistan area The people of 'Ad were tall in stature and were skillful masons. God had given them abundance of wealth, cattle, children and gardens. They had attained a considerable degree of civilization. Among them flourished the famous king Shaddad. He built a magnificent palace near 'Aden. It was known as the Garden of Iram. He was a mighty king and his conquests extended to Syria, Iraq and the frontier of Sub- continent of Indo-Pakistan.

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