Tuesday, May 24, 2011


The map above shows how modern human beings evolved in Africa and then spread throughout the world. The map shows the evolution and spread of humans by following the Y Haplogroups, which is passed from father to son.

Our haplogroup is J which is from the middle east. The maps below show the origination and migration path of men with the "J" Haplogroup.

The Map below from Wikipedia shows current concentrations of men with the "J" Haplogroup. Note that the highest concentration is in the middle east which probably shows where it originated.

Our Haplogroup is actually J2, a subdivision of J, which split from J and J1 and probably originated in the fertile crescent as shown on the map below. It split from J 18,500 +/- 3,500 years ago. Note how J2 spread along the Mediteranean. 

Extracted From Wikapedia - Read more on the Link 

Map of J2 Locations

The map below shows Y Chromosome distribution in Europe 2000 years ago. Note how J2 originated in the middle east and then spread along the seacoast. 

Haplogroup J (Y-DNA)

J is a Middle Eastern haplogroup, divided into the northern J2 and the southern J1. J2 is by far the most common variety in Europe.

The map below shows the spread of J2. The darker green color indicates higher numbers of men with J2. 


"Iran shows some of the highest levels of Haplogroup M172 in the world. When one factors in the population of Iran, it may be one of the most populous countries of men bearing the mutation defining Haplogroup J2. But did Haplogroup J2 originate in Iran? This topic is far more complicated and most sources simply indicate its origin as the Northern Portion of the Fertile crescent which could include the northern Levant, Anatolia, Syria, Iraq or Iran. "


Info / Sources

Our Y Chromsome Haplogroup is J. It is further modified by 2 and a4f2, so it is J2a4h2. The following are some interesting bits of information.

"Haplogroup J2 is found in the highest concentrations in the Caucasus and the Fertile Crescent and is found throughout the Mediterranean(including the Italian, Anatolian and Iberian peninsulas and North Africa)[20].
The highest ever reported concentration of J2 was 72% in Northeastern Georgia. Other high reports include Ingush 32%, Cypriots 30-37%, Lebanese 30%, Iraqis 29.7%, Syrians 22.5%, Kurds 24%-28%, Iranians 23%, Ashkenazi Jews 24%, Palestinian Arabs 16.8%-25%, Sephardic Jews 29%, and North Indian Shia Muslims 18%, Chechens 26%, Balkars 24%, Yaghnobis 32%, Armenians 21-24%, and Azerbaijanis 24%-48%.
Consistent with its Middle Eastern extent, J2a also includes the Cohen Modal Haplotype," which is a haplogroup found in the Priests descendants of Biblical Aaron.

"J2a4h2 (M158) (location under L24 uncertain).  Found with low frequency in Turkey, South Asia, and Indochina.

"the J2 subclade is abundant in India (2-22%), and its frequency peaks in the Northwest region."

"Anatolia is most likely the source of this subclade in India, again consistent with the West to East flow of J2.  The date of this invasion points to a period during or after the Neolithic era, and East west towards the levant in the historic times. "

"J2 lineage is also found in SW India with an interesting frequency trend: a higher fraction of J2 in the higher castes and decreasing amounts in lower castes."

"J2a. M410 subclade is present in the Middle East and Southcentral Asia (~4%), which includes India and Nepal. In India, there is a general trend for increased J2a frequency in higher castes. It has also been found in Crete (1-2%), Yadavas (South India) 20%, Tharus (Nepal) 12%-22%...."

"However , The sister clade of J2a4h1 - AKA -J2a4h2 (M158) (location under L24 uncertain) Found with low frequency in Turkey, South Asia, and Indochina."

"J2a4a (M47, M322) Found with low frequency in Georgia, southern Iran, Qatar,Saudi Arabia, Syria,Turkey,the UAE, India and Central Asia/Siberia."



Y-DNA Haplogroup J and its Subclades

FTDNA's Haplotree http://ytree.ftdna.com/index.php?name=Draft&parent=89159733 

J-L24 FTDNA Draft tree  http://ytree.ftdna.com/index.php?name=Draft&parent=56436509

Y-DNA haplogroup J evolved in the ancient Near East and was carried into North Africa, Europe, Central Asia, Pakistan and India. J2 lineages originated in the area known as the Fertile Crescent. The main spread of J2 into the Mediterranean area is thought to have coincided with the expansion of agricultural peoples during the Neolithic period. 

The timing of the demographic events that brought J2 to Central Asia, Pakistan, and India is not yet known. J1 lineages may have a more southern origin, as they are more often found in the Levant region, other parts of the Near East, and North Africa, with a sparse distribution in the southern Mediterranean flank of Europe, and in Ethiopia.

There is a descending gradient in the frequency of occurrence of haplogroup J from the Middle East toward the northwest of Europe, reaching about 3% of the population on the northwest Atlantic coast. The occurrence of J in Europe is undoubtedly due both to the Neolithic expansion and to episodic migrations, though the relative proportion of those two sources is controversial and may not be the same in different locations.

A significant fraction of Jews belong to haplogroup J, but Jews represent a small minority of the European members of the haplogroup. The "Cohen Modal Haplotype" is a specific set of six Y-STR marker values that occurs in both J1 and J2, though at a much higher frequency in J1.

There are also studies indicating that J2 may have spread along the shores of the Mediterranean by the Phoenicians.

Adams et al, The Genetic Legacy of Religious Diversity and Intolerance: Paternal Lineages of Christians, Jews, and Muslims in the Iberian Peninsula, American Journal of Human Genetics, 83(6): 725-36, 2008.
Alonso et al, The Place of the Basques in the European Y-chromosome Diversity Landscape. (available by subscription) European Journal of Human Genetics, 13:1293-1302, 2005.
Athey T W, Schrack B E, A New Subclade of Y Haplogroup J2b. (pdf) Journal of Genetic Genealogy, 4(1):27-34, 2008.
Behar et al, Contrasting Patterns of Y Chromosome Variation in Ashkenazi Jewish and Host Non-Jewish European Populations. (pdf) Hum Genet 114:354-365, 2004.
Capelli et al, Population Structure in the Mediterranean Basin: A Y Chromosome Perspective. (pdf) Annals of Human Genetics, 2005.
Cinnioglu et al, Excavating Y-chromosome Haplotype Strata in Anatolia. (pdf) Human Genetics. 114:127-148, 2004.
Cruciani et al, A Back Migration from Asia to Sub-Saharan Africa Is Supported by High-Resolution Analysis of Human Y-Chromosome Haplotypes. American Journal of Human Genetics, 70:1197-1214, 2002.
Cruciani et al, Tracing Past Human Male Movements in Northern/Eastern Africa and Western Eurasia: New Clues from Y-Chromosomal Haplogroups E-M78 and J-M12. (pdf) Molecular Biology and Evolution 24(6):1300-1311, 2007.
Di Giacomo et al, Y Chromosomal Haplogroup J as a Signature of the Post-Neolithic Colonization of Europe. (pdf) Human Genetics, 115:357-371, 2004.
Flores et al, Reduced Genetic Structure of the Iberian Peninsula Revealed by Y-chromosome Analysis: Implications for Population Demography. (available by subscription) European Journal of Human Genetics, 12:855-863, 2004.
Karafet et al, New Binary Polymorphisms Reshape and Increase Resolution of the Human Y-Chromosomal Haplogroup Tree. Abstract. Genome Research, published online April 2, 2008. Supplementary Material.
Karafet et al, Paternal Population History of East Asia: Sources, Patterns, and Microevolutionary Processes. (pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics, 69:615-628, 2001.
King et al, The Coming of the Greeks to Provence and Corsica: Y-Chromosome Models of Archaic Greek Colonization of the Western Mediterranean, BMC Evolutionary Biology, 11: 69, 2011.
King et al, Differential Y-chromosome Anatolian Influences on the Greek and Cretan Neolithic. (abstract) Annals of Human Genetics. 72:205–214. 2008.
Kivisild et al, The Genetic Heritage of the Earliest Settlers Persists in Both Indian Tribal and Caste Populations. (pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics, 72:313-332, 2003.
Myres et al, (2007), Y-chromosome Short Tandem Repeat DYS458.2 Non-concensus Alleles Occur Independently in Both Binary Haplogroups J1-M267 and R1b3-M405. Croatian Medical Journal, 48, 2007.
Nasidze et al, MtDNA and Y-chromosome Variation in Kurdish Groups. (abstract) Annals of Human Genetics, 69:401-412, 2005.
Nasidze et al, Testing Hypotheses of Language Replacement in the Caucasus: Evidence from the Y-chromosome, Human Genetics 112 (3): 255-61, 2003.
Regueiro et al, Iran: Tricontinental Nexus for Y-Chromosome Driven Migration. (abstract) Human Heredity, Vol. 61, No 3, 132-143, 2006.
Semino et al, Ethiopians and Khoisan Share the Deepest Clades of the Human Y-Chromosome Phylogeny. (pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics, 70:265-268, 2002.
Semino et al, Origin, Diffusion, and Differentiation of Y-Chromosome Haplogroups E and J: Inferences on the Neolithization of Europe and Later Migratory Events in the Mediterranean Area. (pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics, 74:1023-1034, 2004.
Sengupta et al, Polarity and Temporality of High Resolution Y-chromosome Distributions in India Identify Both Indigenous and Exogenous Expansions and Reveal Minor Genetic Influence of Central Asian Pastoralists. (pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics, 78:202-221, 2006.
Shen et al, Reconstruction of Patrilineages and Matrilineages of Samaritans and other Israeli Populations from Y-Chromosome and Mitochondrial DNA Sequence Variation. (pdf) Human Mutation, 24:248-260, 2004.
Zalloua et al, Y Chromosome Diversity in Lebanon is Structured by Recent Historical Events. (abstract) The American Journal of Human Genetics, Volume 82, Issue 4, 873-882, 28 March 2008.
Zalloua et al, Y Chromosome Diversity in Lebanon is Structured by Recent Historical Events. (abstract) The American Journal of Human Genetics, Volume 82, Issue 4, 873-882, 28 March 2008.
Additional Resources:
The Y-Haplogroup J DNA Project, Bonnie Schrack and Tim Janzen.
J1b (J-M365) Haplogroup Y-DNA Project, Ricardo Costa de Oliveira.
J1c3 Haplogroup Y-DNA Project, Jaber Al Haddad.
J1c3d1 (J-L222.2) Haplogroup Y-DNA Project,
J2 Haplogroup Y-DNA Project, Angela Cone.
J2 Haplogroup Arab Y-DNA Project, Kamal Al-Gazzah.
J2 Haplogroup Jewish Y-DNA Project, Debra Katz.
The J2b-M102 DNA Project, Roman Sychev.
J2b (455=8) Y-DNA Project,
J2Plus Project, Donn Devine.
J-L24 Y-DNA Project, Alfred Aberto, Debra Katz, Tim Janzen, Kamal Al-Gazzah.

Video explaining Y Chromosome DNA

Persons and Countries J2a4h2 - Our Genetic "Cousins"

Persons and Countries J2a4h2 - Our Genetic "Cousins"
Not the locations and Names

131218 Morocco J2a4h2
N67066 Jacob Mandel, b.c. 1870 d. 1935 Olyphant, PA J2a4h2
85998 Mathai Verghese - Palasseril House J2a4h2
149051 Al Ahmed J2a4h2
N19968 Joh Fried Braun, Vestenberg, Bavaria, Germany 1710 J2a4h2
15299 William Henry Brown 1789 - 1871 J2a4h2
87790 Drochowo, Poland J2a4h2
42049 William Hawkins J2a4h2
49192 Zapito Bizzarro J2a4h2
81463 Lewis Cohen - immigrated to London UK C1900 J2a4h2

N44844 M. EL-HOSS, 1832-1932 Beirut-Lebanon J2a4h2
6357 John W Smith, b.c. 1830 in Germany J2a4h2
60749 binyamin labe rubin J2a4h2
127432 Palermo, Sicily, Italy J2a4h2
101540 Izidor Sillmann, (1876-1944) J2a4h2
101676 Luigi Licciardone, b.c. 1860, Cosenza, Italy J2a4h2
71979 Jesse Marsh J2a4h2
77273 Lewis Cohen, b.c.1833, Poland J2a4h2
77639 Richard Lifton, b.1788, Milford, Pembroke, Wales J2a4h2

78283 Jonathan Jennings, born 1720, England J2a4h2
46325 Baldassare Guzzardo, Contessa Entellina, b. 1726 J2a4h2
35476 Sederevicius, b.c.1715, Gelgaudiskis, Lithuania J2a4h2
N26115 Augustin Álvarez y Salazar, c. 1862 Orense, Spain J2a4h2
59509 Matteo Gurliaccio b ca 1700 Rodi Garganico, Italy J2a4h2
1498 Jonas de Riviere, b.c. 1608 d Groede, Netherlands J2a4h2
N65160 Syria J2a4h2
12071 Samuel Schezerowski (now Traynor), near Lida, Russ J2a4h2
187391 Sarkis Karagueuzian, b.~1850, Sivas, Turkey J2a4h2
139760 Partner of Mary STROUP of Gaston Co NC J2a4h2

25362 John Curtin, 1850-1926 J2a4h2
93502 Russia, Orehovo-Zuevo J2a4h2
136472 Gorfinkel J2a4h2
164231 Hovsep Bertizlian, ~1872-1972, Marash, Turkey J2a4h2
M4258 United Arab Emirates J2a4h2
146291 Aaron Zevi Friedman 1822-1876 J2a4h2
168258 Tomasso Serafini, b.c.1850 Villavallelonga Abruzzo J2a4h2
N5303 Joseph Alexander Miller, b. 1854, Jamaica J2a4h2

7985 James B. Ward / Wardle b1796 SC or England died AL J2a4h2
164554 Yosef ben Idel Torbe, 1788-1840 J2a4h2
18421 Daniel Hollingsworth, m. 1780 Hertford, Herts, Eng J2a4h2
128942 Iran J2a4h2
187484 Heini Hollinger AArgau, Switzerland (Craig Hullinger) J2a4h2
150085 Giovanni Fracalossi b 1840 Trentino, Italy J2a4h2
N74130 Jacob Bronder, 1745-1799 J2a4h2
N65342 paphlagonia , turkey J2a4h2
181272 Ovakem (Avakian), b.~1850, Malayer, Iran J2a4h2
182634 Jakob Kahana Goldenthal, 1815-1867 J2a4h2
152104 saudi J2a4h2
173802 Leonid Abraimov, ????-1912 J2a4h2

145230 Josep Oliva i Capall DOB abt. 1850; DOD abt 1940 J2a4h2
147896 Littleberry Cox 1774 Campbell CO VA J2a4h2
N72273 Sieu Odorhei J2a4h2
9109 Aizik Kaplanski, b.1891, Kamianiec, Belarus J2a4h2
200284 Caspar Bronder, b 1816, Kielcza, Poland J2a4h2
164221 Zohrabyan, Dzulfa, Armenia J2a4h2
141110 Josef Moshe Liquornik first rabbi of Sadagora J2a4h2
132800 Joseph Caruso J2a4h2

54399 David Blackwell, m. 1797, Berks Co. PA J2a4h2
N36177 Marjayoun, Lebanon J2a4h2
20988 William Haines, m. 1786, Gloucestershire, England J2a4h2a
183028 Julius Cohen 1864 Костюковичский, Belarus J2a4h2a
117354 Mojtesz Schlussel, b.c. 1830Krakow, Galicia J2a4h2a
195459 Marcus Langer, 1878 - 1964 J2a4h2a
88836 James Leonard, b.c. 1620, England, d. 1691, Taunto J2a4h2a
126915 Michael Keinat, Baden, Germany J2a4h2a
65069 G'dal Goldman, b.c.1786,Yasnogorodka, Vasil., Ukr. J2a4h2a
N14132 Boris Serebnick 1856-1926 J2a4h2a
N24979 Schindeldecker J2a4h2a

55676 Joh. Gerhard Brandenburg, c. 1676 Westerwald J2a4h2a
N24443 Lukas Smolei born abt 1753 Radece 34, Slovenia J2a4h2a
N30814 Jonas Hold, b 1601, d 1664, Germany J2a4h2a
50950 William James b 1729-1734 Rowan Co, NC [Wales] J2a4h2a
47564 Euclid Langford, b. ca. 1757 VA d. 1810 GA J2a4h2a
43367 J2a4h2a
160642 Ed Simpson, 1873, Tenn. USA J2a4h2a
151026 J2a4h2a
173911 Wolf Zimak alias Simon Freybuschewitz d 1884. J2a4h2a
95297 Jonas de Riviere, b ca 1608 d 1670 J2a4h2a

N49931 Vollmar Faul, 1580 - 1610 J2a4h2a
N69566 Pablo Dominguez, 1896 - 1985 J2a4h2a
N12120 Garabed Hindian, 1894 - 1985, Talas, Turkey J2a4h2a
N48966 Alfonso Giaquinto 1866 Mercato San Severino, Italy J2a4h2a
N14008 John Miller, 1803 J2a4h2a
192369 Herman Lebovics J2a4h2a
N13499 Francesco Cardello, Caltagirone, Sicily, Italy J2a4h2a
19275 John Levi, 1798-1873 J2a4h2a
93197 Jorge Gomes Carvalho;b.1610, R.Monsaraz, Portugal J2a4h2a
118777 Obediah Vowell, b 1768>Malachi>John Henry J2a4h2a

145585 Mendel Wengrowski c.1815 - c.1868 Lutomiersk, Pol. J2a4h2a
N3433 Avrom Lissak, 1900-1986 Austria J2a4h2a
N3381 Nicholas Leonardis J2a4h2a
16854 Antonio Macinanti, b.c. 1856, ITALY J2a4h2a
88813 Cayetano Fernández, born c. 1865 J2a4h2a

150542 Onofre Montoya, born 1674 in Santa Fe, NM USA J2a4h2a
115582 William B. Wade, 1816-? J2a4h2a1
N33274 John Xuereb 1910-1980 Mosta, Malta J2a4h2a2
N14560 Jose Maria Aburto-Andrade, Puebla, Mexico, c. 1851 J2a4h2b
N21459 Jose Maria Aburto-Mora, Puebla, Mexico, c. 1800 J2a4h2b
N65194 Jose Victoriano Aburto-Reyes, c. 1827, Puebla, Pue J2a4h2b
42362 Jean Ducas dit Labrèche b 1657 Oloron, Bearn, FR J2a4h2c

47243 Jean Ducas dit Labrèche (v. 1657) Oloron, France J2a4h2c
107008 Jean Ducas b. 1657 St Pierre d'Oloron, Bearn, FR J2a4h2c
N62982 Benedicto Zambrano, born c. 1800, Colombia J2a4h2d
79351 Thomas Jacob Chackalamannil J2a4h2d
177722 Christian Kurtze alias van Someren, ca 1640 - 1715 J2a4h2d
93278 Center Line, Michigan J2a4h2d
N37763 Hans Johann Jacob Seibel 1646-1694 J2a4h2d
123280 Georg Heinrich Seibel married 1734 in Hassloch J2a4h2d
671 Rueven haCohen Katz b.c.1760, north of BerdicevUkr J2a4h2e
N31729 Andrea Cosentino, 1872 - Nova Siri, Italy J2a4h2e

46865 Szlama haCohen Kankus, b.c. 1825 J2a4h2e
N67693 Minsk, Belarus J2a4h2e
N21925 TURKEY J2a4h2f
N9797 Chacko Manakalathil, Thiruvalla, Kerala, India J2a4h2f
110343 Talhouni, (Tarhouni) Libya J2a4h2f
189339 Arathoon from Charmahal, Iran J2a4h2f
112552 Al Gazzah (Ksar El Nejejra,Msaken,Tunisia) J2a4h2f1
164560 Mahjoub, Ksar El Jedidiyine, Msaken J2a4h2f1
147422 Ben Sik Ali(Ksar El Jabliyine,Msaken,Tunisia) J2a4h2f1
56667 John CRASS, SR b. 1780 VA J2a4h2g
65789 George Cress, 1739-1823 J2a4h2g
153545 Al Ahsai J2a4i


Approximate Ages of "Y" J

All of the ages are estimates and subject to change as more is learned. All people are descended from one man who lived about 60,000 +- in Africa.

The following are estimated years ago from the mutation that created our lineage.

J                  20,000 - 23,000

J2                16,000 - 20,000

J2a              16,000 - 19,000

J2a4              4,200 - 11,000

J2a4h (L25)  10,000 - 12,000

J2a4h2 (L24)  8,200 - 12,000   (Hullingers)

Table of Age estimation by Marko Heinila

The age of 8,200 gave our paternal ancestors plenty of time to leave the middle east and get to AArgau, Switzerland. Presumably he was a fairly late entrant to Switzerland as not many Swiss are J2. But it is also not that far from areas in Italy where there are numerous J2. 

Our ancestor could have been someone who was with the people who brought agriculture to Europe, a Phoenician, a Roman soldier or slave, or a Jew, or some of the above. We will probably never know for sure, although further progress in testing may bring more clues. But it is fun to speculate.


  1. I just got my Y DNA test done and I am J2 need to get more markers tested for subclades

  2. R1b in Europe must be something totally different the R1b of Asia
    The Fulani have an old Berber element. This is not surprising, but it is only a part of the origin of White Fulani. The remaining and the most surprising part about Solving the Mysterious Origin of the Fulani is not in Africa but I believe from my historical analysis it is in Turkic speaking countries, particularly The Khazars. Their vast slavery campaigns brought them in contact with many peoples in East Europe, Turkey, the Levant, and the Berber and from that the Fulani people were formed.
    and R1b1c (R-V88) is related to R-M335 (R1b1b) mainly in Anatolia (Asia Minor) and P297 and its division R-M73 (R1b1a1). Found in Anatolia, Caucasus, Urals, Hazara
    As you know haplogroup R1b is not indigenous to Africa, and I am sure it is also not in Europe. I guess its homeland is only central and western Asia. What is called R1b in Europe must be something totally different from the R1b of R1b1c and R1b1b. I think R1b identification, maps and grouping need fresh studies.
    The tribes that were to comprise the Khazar Empire were not an ethnic union, but a congeries of steppe nomads and peoples who came to be subordinated, and subscribed to a core Tűrkic leadership. Many Turkic groups, such as the Oğuric peoples, including Šarağurs, Oğurs, Onoğurs, and Bulğars who earlier formed part of the Tiĕlè confederation, are attested quite early, having been driven West by the Sabirs, who in turn fled the Asian Avars, and began to flow into the Volga-Caspian-Pontic zone from as early as the 4th century CE and are recorded by Priscus to reside in the Western Eurasian steppelands as early as 463.
    My approach is historic. Would you please consider my finding and investigate it genetically. This could be a great discovery for the origins of the Fulani, the Roma and the Ashkenazi peoples that eluded everybody forever